Thursday, 16 April 2015

Australia's energy productivity plan: great idea, but is it ambitious enough?


image via iStock

by Alan Pears AM, RMIT University

The three main elements of the government’s vision in its Energy White Paper, released this week, are competition, energy productivity and investment. One significant new proposal is a National Energy Productivity Plan to “lower costs, improve energy use and stimulate economic growth”.

This will cover the built environment, equipment and appliances, and vehicles, and aims to “improve national energy productivity by up to 40% by 2030”.

Energy productivity, which includes energy efficiency but also goes beyond it, is a way of doing more with less. When it works, it means Australia could be using less energy – which is good news for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from burning fossil fuels, and for energy security.

But how quickly can such as plan be developed and put in place? And is the government’s upper limit of a 40% improvement by 2030 ambitious?

What is energy productivity?


The most common indicator of energy productivity is the amount of economic output per unit of energy input: the higher the value the better. This is similar to other productivity indicators.

One way to think of energy productivity is to look at gross domestic product (GDP) per unit of primary energy. Primary energy is the raw energy that is harvested, mined or extracted. Typically some of this energy is “lost” through processing, conversion and delivery to the meter or fuel pump.

This is different to “final” or “end use” energy such as when you flick a switch at home. For instance, heating a room with an electric fan heater uses fewer units of metered electric energy than if gas is used, as the gas appliance has combustion losses on the consumer side of the meter. But in terms of primary energy, the electric fan heater uses much more energy, as three units of fossil fuel are used to create each unit of electricity. So despite the losses from gas combustion, the gas heater uses half as much primary energy as the electric one.


Productivity could focus business


In the white paper, the government seems to use a different energy productivity indicator, the “cost of energy” per unit of GDP, although this is not clearly defined. This means that any reduction in energy prices – through competition, flexible electricity prices, or privatisation as recommended in the paper – will increase energy productivity. So the way the government has defined energy productivity may not deliver a reduction in primary energy use, or the associated environmental benefits.

Energy productivity has become a buzzword over the past few years for several reasons.

First, it has proved increasingly difficult to drive overall productivity improvement by focusing on labour and capital productivity, the two traditionally dominant factors.

Second, while energy is a relatively small input to the economy, it plays a key role as the “engine of development”, as industry and business can’t deliver products and services without energy, and can have large impacts on overall productivity of labour and capital.

Third, increasing economic output while lowering costs is attractive for policy makers and businesses. With the major role of energy as a driver of climate change, and concerns about energy security in many parts of the world, energy productivity can help us focus on energy issues.

For instance, I commonly encounter businesses across all sectors who reject energy efficiency measures that pay back costs immediately or within five years, despite the clear benefits of pursuing them. But by showing that energy efficiency is very profitable in comparison with other investments, I hope to encourage businesses will begin to take advantage of their amazing benefits.


How can we improve energy productivity?


If our aim is to extract more economic output from each unit of primary energy, we can do this in several ways. The Australian Alliance to Save Energy has suggested:
  • improving traditional energy efficiency: more energy efficient buildings, appliances and vehicles, smarter operation of equipment, avoiding waste;
  • optimising energy supply and use across the supply chain: increasing utilisation of equipment, minimising energy losses in conversion and delivery of energy, and choosing energy sources and prices wisely;
  • transforming business models, by replacing physical products with virtual services, or shifting from producing commodity products to high-value products.
ClimateWorks Australia has presented similar options, but separate out electrification (such as using energy efficient electric cars plugged into renewable energy), and energy conversion and distribution.
In the white paper the government’s approach allows competition, privatisation and cost-reflective pricing to improve energy productivity under its broader definition.


Could Australia do more?


Neither Australia’s present level of energy productivity, nor its rate of improvement, rate all that highly in comparison to other countries, as shown in a study by the Australian Alliance for Saving Energy.

Australia doesn’t stack up particularly well against other countries on energy productivity. Australian Alliance for Saving Energy

Some countries are aiming high. The US target is to double its energy productivity relative to 2005 by 2030. At the same time, both the Alliance and ClimateWorks studies have concluded that it is feasible and worthwhile for Australia to near double its energy productivity by 2030.

The government uses a broader definition of energy productivity, and admits in the white paper that business as usual would deliver a 25% improvement by 2030. So its 40% improvement upper limit for a target seems lacking in ambition.

Given the lengthy and complex process proposed to develop (let alone implement) the energy productivity plan, and the lack of detail on resources, funding and institutional processes, maybe that’s just realistic.

The Conversation
This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.

86 comments:

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"a way of doing more with less" - Well Jevon's paradox has so far never been refuted since he studied Watt's steam engines and their energy savings - which led to an increase in overall use that overcompensated for the savings by a great margin. But the most amazing thing is that, so far, ALL governments ignore the very simple fact that the lion's share of energy use is low temperature heat. And that the sun provides about the energy used "under" roofs on the square mileage of roofs installed so far (as a rule of thumb). But instead of focusing on the very cheap capture of heat via thermal collectors they promote all kinds of gadgets such as photovoltaic panels which not only capture but a third of the energy yet cost at least three times more - or, in your terms, provide one NINTH f energy productivity

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ایمپلنت دندان یکی از خدمات کلینیک دندانپزشکی دندون طلااست که به صورت کاملا تخصصی و با کمک آخرین و بهترین برندهای ایمپلنت انجام می شود. در کنار درمان ایمپلنت کارهای لازم برای آماده سازی شرایط کاشت ایمپلنت نیز در کلینیک دندانپزشکی انجام می شود. زمانی که استخوان فک برای جراحی ایمپلنت دندان آماده نباشد با جراحی های پیوند استخوان این کمبود برطرف می شود.

لمینت دندان یک درمان سریع زیبایی برای دندان ها می باشد که بدون اینکه آسیبی به دندان های شما بزند، با استحکام عالی لبخند شما را زیباتر می کند. شما درمان زیبایی لمینت دندان می توانید با توجه به میل خود، رنگ و فرم دندان هایتان را انتخاب کنید.
ارتودنسی دندان یک روش درمانی در دندانپزشکی است که دندان های نامرتب و نامنظم را اصلاح می کند. ارتودنسی دندان علاوه بر اصلاح دندان ها زیبایی خاصی هم به دندان ها می دهد و از خرابی آنها نیز پیشگیری می کند.

جراحی دندان عقل اسم دیگر دندان های آسیاب چهارم دندان عقل نیز گفته می شود که به طور همیشگی در دهان رشد می کند.

درمان و اصلاح لبخند لثه ای ، لبخند لثه ای یا لبخند لثه نما زمانی اتفاق می افتد که بیمار شروع به خندیدن می کند، در این زمان لثه های او دیده می شوند. در ۸۰ درصد بیمارها هنگام خندیدن لثه های آنها بیرون می زنند.

اصلاح طرح لبخند و زیبایی خنده ، احساس خوب داشتن و انتقال آن به دیگران یکی از خواسته های افراد است، شاید چیزهایی زیادی باعث این احساس در شما شود. مسلما خنده و لبخند زیبا به چهره داشتن می تواند به این خواسته شما کمک زیادی کند.

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چاپ بنر said...

چاپ دیجیتال یکی از دو روش قدیمی است که یک پلیت یا زینک دارد که متریال روی آن قرار گرفته و چاپ می شود. این عمل همراه با انتقال جوهر صورت می گیرد که ممکن است رنگ ها در چند مرحله روی کاغذ اجرا شود. بنابراین قیمت چاپ دیجیتال جایگزین بسیار مناسبی بوده و مزایای زیادی هم دارد.
چاپ بنر را می‌توان مهم‌ترین مدیا در گروه چاپ فضای خارجی به شمار آورد که برای انواع تبلیغات، به خصوص معرفی شرکت‌ها، محصولات و خدمات، به کار می‌رود.
چاپ کارت ویزیت نشانگر سلیقه، گرایشات، نظرات و دیدگاه های کاری یک شخص یا سازماناست. برای ‏نیازهای فوری و تیراژهای زیر 1000، چاپ دیجیتال کارت ویزیت بهترین انتخاب است.
چاپ کاتالوگ‎ ‎ابزار مهمی در معرفی و اطلاع رسانی در حوزه های تولید و خدمات است. ‏
چاپ بروشور‎‎(Brochure) ‎دفترچه یا برگه ایست (معمولا به صورت تا شده از چند جا بر روی خود) برای ‏ارائه توضیحات کاملی
چاپ پوستر‎‎‏ وسیله ای برای اعلان خبر در مورد رویدادها و موضوعات مختلف است که عموما به ‏صورت عمودی طراحی شده و به نمایش در می آید. ابعاد طراحی پوستر باید مناسب برای مشاهده از ‏فاصله نزدیک باشد.
چاپ عکس معمولا با بهره گیری از مرغوب ترین نوع کاغذ (بهترین نوع کاغذ فوتو گلاسه) برای ‏چاپ عکس ها در بهترین کیفیت از نظر رنگ و رزولوشن و با ماندگاری بسیار بالا به کار می رود. ‏
تابلو فلکسی یـا تابلو فلکسی فیس در ایران از حدود سال ۱۳۷۵ در تبلیغات فضای بیرونی و نیز درونی به کار می‌رود. چاپ فلکس عرض 5 متر به نسبت دیگر تابلو فلکسی تبلیغاتی ، به لحاظ نورپردازی و تنوع جلوه‌های بصری، برجسته است.
چاپ روی بوم به دو صورت با کلاف و بدون کلاف صورت می گیرد. در چاپ با کلاف، چارچوبی دورتادور سطح چاپ شده قرار می‌گیرد و در چاپ بدون کلاف، طرح صرفا روی چاپ روی بوم انجام می شود.

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elham keshavarz said...

تیک بان یک سایت معتبر خرید بلیط هواپیما می باشد که می توانید به صورت آنلاین و بلیط اینترنتی هواپیما و با گارانتی معتبر بلیط هواپیمای خودتان را تهیه کنید. آیا می خواهد مسافرت بروید؟ اگر بلیط اینترنتی هواپیما می خواهید تیکبان یکی از اولین های فروش و رزرو بلیط های انواع کلاس های هواپیما می باشد . یادتان باشد سایت معتبر خرید بلیط هواپیما تیک بان همیشه مشتری مداری را به عنوان شاخص فعالیت خود در نظر گرفته است و هر روز می کوشد که رضایت خاطر مشتریان را جلب کند.
بلیط هواپیما آنلاین
خرید بلیط هواپیما به صورت آنلاین در کشور عزیزمان با فعالیت این سایت ها جان دوباره ای گرفت. در عصر حاضر با گسترش مشغله های کاری و زندگی شهرنشینی خرید بلیط آنلاین برای همه مسافران امری ضروری تلقی می شود. ما با رزرو اینترنتی بلیط های هواپیمایی زمان را برای خود به ارمغان می آوریم. و حتی میتوانیم بهترین نوع بلیط ها را با کمترین هزینه تهیه کنیم. تیک بان : کامل ترین و راحت ترین خرید اینترنتی بلیط هواپیما در کشور برای سفرهای داخلی و خارجی با بهترین گارانتی می باشد.

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خانه طراحان سام said...

چاپ دیجیتال چیست؟
چاپ دیجیتال فرآیند چاپ یک عکس دیجیتالی (image) روی انواع مختلف پلتفورم ها است. عکس می تواند یک لوگو، سند، تصویر و هر چیز دیگری باشد. هر گونه رزوناس ساکن یا ایستایی که با بارگذاری روی یک دستگاه یا پلتفورم تبدیل شده و می تواند عکس دیجیتال چاپ کند.
اگر کمی پیچیده تر بیان کنیم، چاپ دیجیتال فرآیند تبدیل عکس و سند از دستگاه به حافظه ی محلی یا ابری به لایه ها یا کدهای دوتایی است که فرآیند انتقال دیجیتال را فراهم می کند. عمل تبدیل عکس یا سند به کدهای دوتایی در فرآیند ذخیره سازی و باز تولید انجام می گیرد.
منبع : چاپ دیجیتال خانه طراحان سام